Categories of Disability
Wikipedia does a fine job. Please read the entire page. It is tremendously helpful.
Types of disability (http://www.wordiq.com/definition/Disability)
"Disability" can be broken into a number of broad sub-categories, which include the following:
Sensory impairments, such as visual, hearing, taste and smell impairments.
Cognitive impairments such as autism, down syndrome, cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, brain injury, spina bifida and stroke to name a few.
Emotional impairments such as depression, schizophrenia, bi-polar and borderline personality disorder to name a few.